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Immunoassays are powerful tools for detecting and quantifying a wide range of molecules, including proteins, hormones, and drugs in biological samples. These assays rely on the high specificity and sensitivity of antibodies to bind to specific molecules of interest and generate a signal that can be measured and analyzed.

Immunoassays are used in a wide range of applications, from basic research to clinical diagnostics, and are critical for understanding disease biology and to aid the development of new treatments.

We offer a wide range of immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), Meso Scale Discovery (MSD), Luminex® multiplex assay, ELISpot, western blot, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D gel).

The choice of assay depends on the application of interest. 

Technology Spotlights

MSD Assay


MSD multi-array technology is a type of immunoassay used to detect and quantify proteins or other biomolecules in biological samples. It is based on a sandwich immunoassay format, in which two antibodies are used to detect and measure the target molecule.

MSD ASSAY - Immuno Assay_1-01

Fig. MSD technology principle. MULTI-SPOT technology enables multiplexing up to ten analytes per well and supports different assay formats including sandwich immunoassays. (Figure is adapted from www.mesoscale.com)

How it works:

  • The sample is first added to a plate containing capture antibodies, which bind to the target molecule
  • A detection antibody labeled with the ruthenium complex is then added, which binds to a different site on the target molecule
  • After washing away unbound materials, a solution containing a reducing agent is added, causing the ruthenium complex to emit light
  • The amount of light emitted is directly proportional to the amount of target biomolecule in the sample

Luminex Multiplex Assay


The Luminex assay is a bead-based multiplex immunoassay that can simultaneously measure multiple analytes in a single sample. It utilizes color-coded microspheres, each with a unique spectral address, to capture and detect specific biomolecules.

How it works:

  • Microspheres are first coated with capture antibodies specific to the analyte of interest
  • The sample is then added to the microspheres, and the target biomolecules bind to their corresponding capture antibodies
  • A biotinylated detection antibody specific to the analyte is then added, followed by a streptavidin-conjugated fluorophore
  • The level of fluorescence is then measured for each microsphere, providing a quantitative measurement of the amount of analyte in the sample


Fig. Luminex® Assay Principle: Luminex assays use a set of fluorescent beads where each bead falls in a unique spot on the fluorescent spectrum. The beads are coated with capture antibody targeted to the analyte of interest. (Figure is adapted from www.rndsystems.com)




The ELISpot assay is an immunoassay that measures the frequency of antigen-specific immune cells, such as T cells or B cells, by detecting the secretion of cytokines or antibodies. The assay is based on the principle of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and is commonly used in immunology research and clinical diagnostics.

How it works:

  • A multi-well plate is coated with a capture antibody specific to the cytokine or antibody of interest
  • Immune cells, such as T cells or B cells, are then added to the plate and stimulated with the antigen of interest. If the immune cells are specific to the antigen, they will secrete cytokines or antibodies, which will bind to the capture antibody on the plate
  • A secondary detection antibody, conjugated to an enzyme such as alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase, is then added to the plate, which binds to the cytokines or antibodies
  • A chromogenic substrate is then added, which reacts with the enzyme to produce a visible spot in the well. The number of spots is counted and correlates with the frequency of antigen-specific immune cells in the sample.

ELISpot - Immuno Assay_2-01

ELISA, MSD, Luminex, and ELISpot, which one is for me?

ELISA, MSD, Luminex, and ELISPOT are all useful techniques for detecting and quantifying biomolecules, each with their own unique features and advantages. The choice of method will depend on the specific needs of the experiment, such as the desired sensitivity, the number of targets to be measured, the available sample volume, and the level of automation required, as well as the specific biological questions being addressed.

Characteristics ELISA MSD Luminex ELISPOT


Uses enzyme-linked antibodies to detect the target antigen in a sample Uses electrochemiluminescent detection to measure the signal produced by the target molecule Uses bead-based multiplex assays to detect multiple targets simultaneously in a single sample   Measures the frequency of cytokine-secreting cells by capturing the cytokines on a membrane and detecting them with an enzyme-linked detection antibody


High sensitivity.   Detects concentrations in the picogram range High sensitivity. Detects concentrations in the femtogram range  Lower sensitivity compared to ELISA and MSD. Typically used to measure medium-high concentrations of biomolecules High sensitivity. Can detect a single cytokine-secreting cell in a sample


Singleplex only, meaning it can only measure one target at a time Singleplex and multiplex assay options. Can measure up to 54 targets simultaneously Specifically designed for multiplexing. Can measure up to 100 targets in a single sample Typically used as a singleplex assay to measure the frequency of cytokine-secreting cells for a single cytokine

Sample Volume

Typically <100 µL

Usually 25 µL Usually >50 µL Usually 50-200 µL


Can be automated, but requires several steps, which can be time-consuming

 Highly automated, with minimal manual intervention required  Highly automated, with a robotic system that can handle large numbers of samples  Can be semi-automated, but manual intervention is still required for cell counting and data analysis


Popular assay panels:

Luminex Multiplex Panels for mouse

  • Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Universal Panel (32-plex) : G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IP-10, KC, LIF, LIX, MCP-1, M-CSF, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, RANTES, TNF-α, VEGF, Eotaxin/CCL11
  • Mouse TH17 Panel: CD40 Ligand, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, Il-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27, IL-28B, IL-31, IL-33, MIP-3α/CCL20, TNF-α, TNF-β
  • Mouse CD8+ T Cell Panel: sCD137, sFas, sFAS ligand, GM-CSF, Granzyme B, IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, MIP-1β, RANTES, TNF-α
  • Mouse High Sensitivity T Cell Panel: GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-17A, KC/CXCL1, LIX, MCP-1, MCP-2, TNF-α

MSD Multiplex Panels for Human Cytokines/Chemokines

  • V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Kit: IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α
  • V-PLEX Cytokine Panel 1 Human Kit: GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A
  • V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel I (4-Plex): IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α
  • V-PLEX Chemokine Panel 1 Human Kit: MCP-1, MCP-4, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, IP-10, MDC, TARC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-8 (HA), IL-8
  • V-PLEX Human Proinflammatory Panel II (4-Plex): IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α
  • V-PLEX Th17 Panel 1 Human Kit: IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27, IL-31, MIP-3α

MSD Multiplex Panel for Non-Human Primate (NHP) Cytokines/Chemokines



  • V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 NHP Kit: IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10
  • V-PLEX Cytokine Panel 1 NHP Kit: GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A
  • V-PLEX Chemokine Panel 1 NHP Kit: Eotaxin-3, MDC, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, MCP-4, TARC
  • V-PLEX NHP Cytokine 24-Plex Kit: Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-β, VEGF-A


  • V-PLEX GLP-1 Total Kit: GLP-1 (active)
  • V-PLEX GLP-1 Active Kit: GLP-1 (total)

MSD Multiplex Panels for Mouse Cytokines/Chemokines

  • V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Kit: IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α
  • V-PLEX Cytokine Panel 1 Mouse Kit: IL-9, IL-15, IL-17A/F, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-33, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2
  • V-PLEX Th17 Panel 1 Mouse: IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-31, MIP-3α
  • V-PLEX Mouse Cytokine 19-Plex Kit: IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A/F, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, TNF-α
  • V-PLEX Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit: IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α


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