Jia Xue, Yu Zhang, Xianfei He, Henry Q. Li, Sheng Guo
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the cancer therapy landscape in recent years. However, many cancer patients cannot benefit from these therapies. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) has emerged as one of the next generation ICI targets, with potentially lower toxicity and higher safety compared to CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockades.
TIM-3 is widely expressed in different immune lineages playing various roles such as mediating immune tolerance and regulating innate immune response. However, the mechanism of action of TIM-3 inhibition in different malignancies is not completely understood. Whether the expression and genomic status of TIM-3 and its ligands, Ceacam-1, galectin-9, HMGB1 and phosphatidyl serine (PtdSer) are associated with clinical outcome or any indication would be essential for patient selection for TIM-3 targeting therapies.