Validated Efficacy Models

Known response to SOOC validates the response to your agent. Faster, better decision-making. Improved clinical opportunity.


Crown Bioscience has over 200 validated cell line in vivo models to evaluate novel anti-cancer compounds. Whether standard Subcutaneous or Orthotopic Xenograft, or Syngeneic models, our highly experienced preclinical team is focused solely on Oncology and works with you to choose the most appropriate study design and screening method for your candidate.

As an integral step in oncology drug discovery process, cell line derived xenograft (CDX) models provide key decision-making information to allow an agent to move forward. Crown Bioscience has established multiple in vivo assay systems to evaluate novel anti-cancer compounds. Each assay is designed to understand specific aspects of each drug property and its mechanism of action. By using our comprehensive capability, our customers can advance development programs in a timely and cost-effective manner. Our highly experienced preclinical team is focused solely on oncology. Our team works with you to choose the most appropriate models, study design and screening method for an investigational agent.


One of the frequently asked questions in oncology drug discovery is “which cell lines we should work on”. There are a total of around 2,000 cell lines available for studies, many of those have publically available profiling data. Crown Bioscience has launched a database that combines the publically available profiling data of more than 1,000 cell lines, with our proprietary in vivo pharmacology data. This allows users to make an informed decision by searching for gene mutation, amplification, and expression, as well as tumor growth in vivo and response to Standard of Care (SOC) treatments. You can access the database here using this link and registering.



Subcutaneous xenograft models are most frequently used modeling system for oncology drug discovery/research. We have developed and validated more than 140 subcutaneous models covering almost all tumor types.

Orthotopic Models

Orthotopic xenograft models are considered as more clinically relevant models. It is important to demonstrate that the anti-cancer therapy inhibits tumor growth in these models. Crown has validated more than 40 orthotopic models, including models labeled with luciferase so that in vivo imaging may be applied to longitudinally monitor orthotopic tumor growth across the study.

Systemic Models

For non-solid tumors such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, systemic models are closer mimic of patient tumors and considered as valuable tools to evaluate efficacy of therapeutic agents. Crown has validated 17 systemic models.

Syngeneic Models

Many cancer therapeutic agents act through the immune system. The lack of T cell function in nude and SCID mouse xenograft models makes it impractical for testing such therapeutics. CrownBio has validated a panel of standard murine syngeneic tumor models to facilitate research in these areas.

Metastasis Model

The majority of patients die from metastasis and not their primary tumor. Drugs targeting metastasis are therefore of increasing need. Crown Biosciences has validated a number of metastasis models, including spontaneous metastasis and experimental metastasis models. The models cover major cancer types such as breast, colon, liver, gastric, pancreatic, prostate, ovarian and melanoma.

Nude Rat Xenograft Model

Nude rat xenograft models are recognized as an attractive option compared to mice models, because a compounds’ PK properties are typically closer to that observed in humans. Crown has validated both subcutaneous and orthotopic nude rat xenograft models, covering solid tumors such as colon cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and glioblastoma, and non-solid tumors such as AML.

Model Generation Studies

As the sciences develop and industry moves to new directions of drug discovery, there is a continuous need to develop new models. Crown provides a risk-sharing option for the development of new models which helps our clients who have a need to develop specific models and perform studies using those new models. At Crown, we are committed to maintaining a significant amount of our resources to model development to help our client’s mitigate the risks involved in model development.

Specialty Models

Angiogenesis Models

Matrigel plug assay with IHC analysis of blood vessels, as well as with hemoglobin concentration analysis, are both available for agents that may affect the angiogenesis process.

Dual Xenograft Models

With deep understanding of our models and large historical datasets, we have validated a series of pairs of models that may be put on the same mouse, without interfering with each other’s growth. The best use of those dual xenograft models is to demonstrate that the targeted agent is efficacious against one tumor but not the other, on the same mouse. In addition to that, in practice this modeling system saves significant amount of cost. We can then pass the resulting benefit to our clients.

MIXENO™ Models

Most xenograft models have very little stroma components, and even if some have, the stroma is from mouse rather than human. This is very different than what we see in human. It has been shown that admix stroma component with tumor cells in xenograft, such as fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells, may not only change the tumor growth property, but may also change the drug response profile. This is especially true for many antibody therapeutics, where an ADCC effect may only be seen in tumors with human immune cells. We have validated systems where we can admix human PBMC with tumor cells to grow xenograft tumors in mice, and treatment with antibodies demonstrated significant ADCC effect in vivo. These and other MiXeno™ models may prove to be more relevant models in testing novel cancer therapeutic agents.


These unique models are derived from our HuPrime® (patient derived xenograft, PDX) models. We created cell lines from HuPrime® models, and inoculated mice with those cells to form xenograft tumors. Many of those cell lines harbor mutations of novel therapeutic targets, such as R-spondin (RSPO3), FLT3, ALK, and FGFR2. These PrimeXeno models are ideal models for early stage drug discovery, where a robust system is needed to screen for large number of compounds in an assay such as PK/PD analysis. They also complement the existing CDX models, where additional models for efficacy study are always appreciated.

Isogenic Xenograft Models

The explosion of knowledge regarding the genetic underpinnings of human cancer heralds a new era of targeted therapy. To date, in vivo cell based screening has proven a useful tool in almost all drug development programs. Cells used in such screens are usually harvested from cancer patients that harbor the specific mutation of interest, but these cells almost invariably contain many other additional mutations making it difficult to ascertain the specific functions of molecules being screened. Thus the lack of true control cells hampers the development of new cancer therapeutics.

Crown Biosciences has established a strategic partnership with Horizon Discovery, one of the leaders in isogenic cell lines. Using cell lines generated with Horizon Discovery’s proprietary rAAV-based GENESIS™ gene editing platform, we have established a comprehensive range of isogenic cancer models for our in vivo compound screening program to service our clients in academia and industry, with mutations in a wide variety of genes including KRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, IDH1 and p53. These isogenic tumor models comprise pairs of cell lines which share the same genetic background, differing only by the mutation of interest and therefore allowing definitive studies of specific genetic variances to be performed. The same isogenic pairs of lines can be used for in vitro and in vivo experiments to ensure continuity and relevance of results. We have carried out intensive validation of these models in vivo to ensure the lines generate robust tumor growth in mice and the matched tumors differ only in the genetic composition of target gene.


Maximum Tolerated Dose Determinations

PK/PD Study: In Vivo Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies

These are routinely performed in Crown, using western blot, IHC, ELISA, as well as FACS for PD analysis. Our DMPK group has state-of–the-art equipment and a comprehensive list of validated assays that can meet the highest quality standards.

Biomarker Services:

Crown has one of the largest collections of xenograft tumor tissues. Those include both treatment naïve and SOC treated tissues, in frozen and FFPE format, ready for biomarker analysis. Premade or custom made tissue microarrays are also available.

In Vivo Imaging:

We have an in vivo imaging system that can perform X-ray imaging as well as bioluminescence, fluorescence imaging. The system allows longitudinal observations of the same tumor, particularly orthotopic tumors that are otherwise difficult to measure. In addition to that, metastasis imaging is also made available.

Contact us today for a quotation or to discuss your project needs.